February 2016

7 Essential Steps to Prepare for IAS Exam – Topper’s suggestion
Topper of UPSC Civil Services Exam Mr. Rachit Raj is suggesting 11 things to do for the coming prelims UPSC (IAS) Civil Service Examination dated 23rd August 2015. These 11 points are highly recommended to every aspirants:
1. Focus more on revision now. You have studied a lot since you are preparing for long time ,so now give your time for revision so as to recollect maximum at the time of exam.
2. Do a lot of question practice as it will prepare you for the final exam. With practice you become perfect in how to select best option, how to eliminate wrong one’s, how to deal when you do not answer, how to deal when you have partial knowledge etc .
3. Don’t break off with newspaper . It really gives you some information which may become fruitful . Don’t go into that depth but just have an overview which doesn’t take much of your time.
4. Try to give mock tests and while solving questions assume that you are giving prelims final exam so do accordingly and then check your score and mistakes and further try to understand where you have committed mistake and how to rectify in future.
5. Get to know your strengths and weakness and you can hit upon accordingly. While solving questions you get the ability to control on guess work which is really needed as negative marking gonna reduce your marks.
6. Don’t be depressed if you get low marks now as it is the best stage to learn for future and seriously the mock tests are designed in different way as compared to the final prelims paper. So less marks should not bother you . I will narrate here my experience . My prelims was on 26th may and around 10th to 20th may when I was giving tests I was getting a score of 50-65 out of 200. So don’t be depressed and off your mood.
7. In fact you will tend to know which area you are missing and what are the reasons. So just honestly commit yourself and learn .
8. Don’t be afraid of new type of questions if you get they are meant to teach you ,so know and learn about them. No need to panic in such a situation.
9. Be relaxed and be confident about your preparation. If you have been honest all through ,your honesty would be definitely rewarded.
10. No stress , no junk food , have a healthy diet and sleep well . Don’t take much tension as it is going to decrease your efficiency . Thereby follow your normal routine with effective introspection.
11. You have given your best and now the time has come that the whole world would conspire for your success !!! So cheer up and rejoice and give your best !!! It’s all yours !!!!
Author of this article is Mr. Rachit Raj (IAS)

7 Essential Steps to Prepare for IAS Exam – Topper’s suggestionRachit Raj, IAS, sharing his experience and explaining how to prepare for IAS Exam with all who are going to start or who have started their Civil Services exam preparation.
I did my B Tech in Biotechnology and probably I scored decent marks. Always I had the motto of clearing this exam and getting into IAS . During my college days I never studied for this exam and also never went through any newspaper which now I think I should have done. Only thing which was happening was the thought to clear this exam.
After completing my B Tech , I didn’t join any job . Also I got chance to do M Tech but one of my special friend asked not to go into research and PhD ( nothing intentional) so even I dropped this idea too. Lately I realised that I should have some back up before going to start my preparation for IAS. Therefore I decided to go for MBA as a backup plan . I joined an institution in Mumbai and started with my MBA program. Three months passed and honestly speaking I was not at all feeling inclined and interested into this field. So finally in November I left MBA and thought to go for IAS exam preparation . Everyone in my family was not in favour of this decision ( you might know the reason ). But still taking into my self confidence and ability I decided to go for it.
At this stage I will tell you my condition. I was really not interested in history , polity, geography, sociology and economics ( being engineering background , you might realise ). I didn’t know about constitution , modern history, geography etc. But with affirmative mind I joined a coaching and started my preparation.
Initially I felt problem in reading newspaper and how to proceed in the subjects. But I continued with whatever material I had . Later on I really got inclined and interested into all the subjects and enjoyed reading. But I will tell you that always have patience, perseverance and self confidence . This is required .
  • You will have to build your launch pad on your own and then you will have to be prepared to strive for the best .
  • You have strengths and weakness. Bet on your strength and aim to check on weakness part.
  • Just keep moving towards your goal and aim and you will see that you will automatically sail on the correct path .
  • But don’t deviate or be pressurised by negativity . These are the hurdles which you will have to manage .
  • Therefore if you think towards your aim and goal , just go for it with full passion and energy .
  • Life is all yours and its your method and way which will matter the most . So keep yourself motivated and have the passion to achieve your goal. You can and you will get it.
All the best !!!!!!!
This article is written by Mr. Rachit Raj, IAS.

7 Essential Steps to Prepare for IAS Exam – Topper’s suggestion
IAS Exam Rank 3, Rachit Raj Sharing his IAS Exam Preparation strategy for those who are very new in their Civil Services Exam preparation and those who are in their midway preparation:
When I joined my coaching , I was not sure about the crowd and method of teaching . Especially the people all around . I used to hear the aspirants discussing about different general studies topic and on hearing their views I used to find myself at very low position , thinking that I really don’t know much about all these and might be they are much more well educated. Also in the book stores area and all I used to find aspirants having tea and discussing about general studies . These all used to provide me an envelope of negativity all around .
Later on I met some seniors who started giving me the whole list of around 20 books to go through and told me now you should take complete 2 years to prepare for the exam . They also said that it takes 1 year to understand the syllabus of IAS exam .
All these communication made me very skeptical about the IAS exam and filled in me negativity and lowered my self confidence .
But anyhow thinking that I need to continue I started my IAS exam preparation and then continued in my approach . In the initial phase I felt some difficulties as I was very new into this field but I thought that in the early phase of any start up the environment is filled with difficulties and struggle so one need to keep patience and have positive attitude to continue .
So I just managed to bring myself on the correct track .
Thereby just when u start your venture, initially hurdles will always come but you will have to encounter them and confidently deal .
You need to keep your inner positivity and never be affected by other’s negative opinion and thoughts . Other’s will only induce negativity , they won’t like you to succeed and they would only prefer to give you hell lot of advises but only to the extent that it will be never productive .
So it all depends on you , how you take things and how you react. Don’t let anything empower you . Trust me in your ias exam preparation phase none of your competitors and others too will pray for your success ,instead they would be more than happy to hear the news of your failure . So it’s all your persona and personality that will matter in the sense how you are reacting to the situation.
You will be filled with negative thoughts but you will have to maintain calmness and have attitude with positivity towards your goal .
Don’t think of others and don’t let it impact you negatively . Instead take positive points from it and be more motivated to succeed . Try to be more motivated with the negative thoughts , if you have done this you will conquer the world and you will achieve success .
One mantra is ” if you can feel motivated by the negative thoughts then life is all yours and success is yours ” but you will have to do this , though it is tough but you will have to try and it’s not tough. Whenever you are down and off , just think of your goal and aim and work accordingly , you will get more productive results.
All the best !!!!
This Article is written by Mr. Rachit Raj, IAS.

7 Essential Steps to Prepare for IAS Exam – Topper’s suggestion
These 7 must to things while you prepare for IAS Exam, it will increase your chances of success, as it has already been tested by IAS Exam topper Rachit Raj himself. He is sharing the 7 point with all aspirants who prepare for IAS exam.
1. Just make a habit of noting down the materials you read . You will feel lazy in this but just promise yourself that you gonna do this. Because these things during the time of revision will aid you a lot .
2. Newspaper reading is must . Go through it and make a habit of making notes out of it . As you cannot retain all information so it’s better to note down as in during revision this would help you out . You will feel very lazy in making notes and you may postpone it for tomorrow but please it’s your future and its your goal , so be little selfish and try to do that for yourself . 
In newspaper you can have a glance of the whole but try to effectively study editorial section, national news of vital importance etc

3. It’s your choice about the magazine . But make a habit of going through and making notes of the magazine material you studied . It would really gonna help you in later times. Also try to go through the questions given in them as per seeing the changing trend in IAS exam.

4. Don’t be frustrated by the materials and syllabus . No one can prepare all and everything . So it’s up to you how much and how well you are studying . You have to manage study and revision accordingly .

5. Don’t pay much attention to what your contemporaries say. As it will mainly lead to demotivate you and in this exam the primary criteria is that you need to be motivated all the time . You are quite matured to decide for yourself . You should not be influenced by others

6. Journey is yours and life is yours . You have to decide how to live and sustain . It’s all upto you that how effectively you manage . But just remember that you cannot waste your time uselessly ,so in proper apt time you need to give your best and receive the best .
7. So take an oath before yourself that you will follow your path honestly and will try your best . You are not gonna be demotivated and you have to build patience , tolerance and perseverance in yourself. You need to fill your life with the colours of positivity and confidence .

Article written by: Mr. Rachit Raj, IAS

10 UPSC PT Questions for Every IAS Exam Aspirant
1. Federations and Unitary governments are different forms of Government. Choose the incorrect statements in this context.
  1. In unitary government system, there exists only one level of Government.
  2. In our country, Union and State governments have equal say in law making on subjects included in the concurrent list.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

2. State reorganization has been done and many new States were created in our country. Consider these statements and find the incorrect statements.
  1. Language is the sole basis for creation of new States in India.
  2. Formation of linguistic states in our country has led to secessionist tendencies.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

3. Right to freedom of religion has been given to citizens by the Constitution. Choose the incorrect statement in context of this right.
  1. A secular state is a state which promotes all the religions equally.
  2. Art 26 provides for owning and acquiring movable and immovable property for managing religious affairs.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Answer: a) 1 only

4. Cultural and Educational rights have been provided for securing rights of the minority.
Choose the correct statements:
  1. Expression ‘Minority’ specifically refers to religious minorities.
  2. Admission to any Educational Institution receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on ground of religion or language.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Answer: b) 2 only

5. Scope of rights is being continuously expanded by the Judiciary as well as the Parliament. Which among the following are constitutional rights?
  1. Right to property
  2. Right to information
  3. Right to food
  4. Right to vote
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 4 only
d) 2 and 4 only
Answer: c) 1 and 4 only

6. Rights against Exploitation comes under Fundamental Rights. It provides that
  1. Selling and buying of human bodies, prostitution, bonded labour and child labour etc. is prohibited under this category.
  1. Art 24 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any kind of commercial activity.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Answer: d) None of the above

7. International covenant on Economic Social and Cultural rights has recognized many rights. The list does not include
  1. Right to Free and Compulsory Education.
  2. Right of Special care for Women during child birth.
  3. Right to have access to adequate Housing.
  4. Right to privacy where citizen’s phone can’t be tapped.
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 3 and 4
d) 2 and 4
Answer: c) 3 and 4

8. Freedom of speech can be curtailed in the following cases:
  1. In the interest of public order.
  2. In the interest of security of State.
  3. In the interest of discipline of public servants.
  4. In the interest of religious sentiments.
a) All the above
b) 1, 2 and 3
c) 2 and 4
d) 1 and 4
Answer: b) 1, 2 and 3

9 . The rights of minorities to establish Educational Institutions under Article 30, is subject to which of the following limitations?
  1. State can apply regulations to unaided minority institutions to achieve excellence.
  2. Aided minority institutions should admit some non-minority students.
  3. Fees charged by unaided minority institutions can be regulated.
  4. Minority status is determined by reference to the state.
a) 1 and 2
b) 3 and 4
c) 1, 2 and 4
d) 2, 3 and 4
Answer: c) 1, 2 and 4

10. Right to Freedom of religion does not contain which of the following:
  1. Freedom to propagate religion.
  2. Right to convert others.
  3. Right to establish religious institutions.
  4. Exemption from taxes on funds used to maintain a religion.
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 1, 2, 3 and 4
c) 2 and 4 only
d) 1, 3 and 4 only
Answer: c) 2 and 4 only

IAS Exam Questions – Ten Questions for UPSC Quiz

UPSC Quiz for Preliminary Test

1. The correct statement about Fundamental Rights are:
  1. They are enforceable in the Court of Law.
  2. These rights are absolute.
  3. They can be suspended during National Emergency, except some.
  4. They are contained in Part IV of the Constitution.
a) 1, 3 and 4
b) 1, 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 4
Answer: c) 1 and 3

2. Sri Lanka emerged as an Independent country in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. Choose the correct statement/s in this regard:
  1. An act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language.
  2. Governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
  3. New constitution stipulated that the state shall protect all religions.
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 1 and 2
c) 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3
Answer: b) 1 and 2

3. Power sharing is good because:
  1. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
  2. To ensure the stability of political order.
  3. It is the very spirit of democracy.
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 1 and 2
c) 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3
Answer: a) 1, 2 and 3

4. In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take many forms, that is
  1. Power shared among different organs of the Government.
  2. Power can be shared among Governments at different levels.
  3. Power may not be shared among different social groups.
  4. Power sharing arrangements can also be seen among political parties, pressure groups and movements.
Which of the following are forms of power sharing?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2, 3 and 4
c) 1, 3 and 4
d) All the above
Answer: a) 1 and 2

5. Democracy is a rule of the people for the people and by the people’. In light of the above statement which of the following statements is/ are not correct:
  1. Democracy is a form of government in which rulers are selected by the people
  2. Democracy is a form of government in which rulers are nominated by the people
  3. Democracy is a form of government in which rulers are elected by the people
  4. Democracy is a form of governance carried over by monarchs.
a) 1, 2 and 4 only
b) 2 and 4 only
c) 1, 3 and 4 only
d) All the above
Answer: a) 1, 2 and 4 only

6. The essence of Democracy is not merely rulers to be elected by people but:
  1. Who are the rulers and how they are elected
  2. How does the people elect the rulers
  3. The functions performed by these elected rulers
Choose the correct statements:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

7. ‘Democracy consist of choosing your dictators after they have told you what you think it is you want to hear’. In light of above statement which of the following is true with respect to elections
  1. Holding elections of any kind is a sufficient criteria for democracy
  2. Elections need not offer a real choice between political alternatives
  3. The people should be able to use choice in electing rulers but not in removing them
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) None of these
d) All of the above
Answer: c) None of these

8. A Democratic government is a better form of Government because:
  1. It leads to differences and conflicts and aggravates the differences
  2. Improves the quality of Decision making
  3. Is a more accountable form of Government
  4. It is not self correcting
a) Only 1 and 2 are correct
b) 2, 3 and 4 are correct
c) 2 and 3 are correct
d) All of above are correct
Answer: c) 2 and 3 are correct

9. Which of the following statement go against the strengths of Democracy:
  1. Delays and corruption are hallmark of democracy as consultation and electoral competition.
  2. Democracy is marked by instability because leaders keep changing
  3. Conflicts and dissent mark the democratic process of consultation in decision making.
  4. There is lack of accountability in democracy because leaders once elected are there to stay for the fixed term.
a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
b) 2, 3 and 4 are correct
c) 1 and 2 are correct
d) All are incorrect
Answer: c) 1 and 2 are correct

10. Deepening of democracy does not entails the following:
  1. Fulfill all the expectations of people
  2. Strengthening institutions and practices of Democracy that brings about peoples participation.
  3. Centralise the Decision making process and make it top-down.
  4. Let only the rural people participate in governance process.
a) Only 1 and 2 are correct
b) Only 2, 3 and 4 are correct
c) 1, 3 and 4 are correct
d) All are correct
Answer: c) 1, 3 and 4 are correct

IAS Topper Shena Aggarwal (Rank 1) – PMT Topper, AIIMS Doctor, 12th Topper, IRS
Before becoming UPSC IAS topper (2011-12) she was already had a degree of MBBS from AIIMS, which she completed in 2009. Prior to this she was also a topper of  the CBSE Pre Medical Test (PMT) in 2004.

Let’s have a look on her career and life

– Shena is from Yamunanagar, Haryana
– Daughter of Dr. C K Gupta and Pinky Aggarwal
– Scored 95% in 10th standard from Sant Nischal Singh Public School, Yamunanagar
– Scored 92% in 12th std from Dyanchand Public School Nabha
– She stood first in the Class-12 CBSE examination in 2004
– She was the All India topper of CBSE PMT Exam 2004
– Shena got 305th rank in 2010 Civil Service Exam
– Became IAS Topper after getting Rank 1 in UPSC Civil Services Exam in 2011-12.

Preparation Strategy

During her Preparation she mostly relied on self-study but also took guidance of teachers from time to time.
She read newspapers and magazines to get a better understanding of current events.
Despite her busy IRS training schedule in Nagpur, she dedicated 5 − 6 hours a day in preparing for the 2011 examination. It must be noted here the she had already cleared Civil Services Exam  once still she felt a need of 5-6 hours of study everyday.
She says “When it comes to preparation for the UPSC, there can be no shortcut. Obviously, since I had taken the exam once before, I had a certain edge. There were no surprises this year.”

Tests for self Evaluation

When asked about how did she kept herself motivated, she says “Yes She took part in tests to find out her shortcoming and correct her weaknesses, it worked as both warning and motivation at times.”

Optional Subject

Being a doctor her obvious choice was Medical Science and another related subject she opted for Psychology. She did not experimented to explore new and relatively unknown area but with a clear mind opted a set of optional subjects with which she was comfortable.
Every beginner has many questions while choosing optional subjects. Sneha was well versed in Medical Science as a paper but most of aspirants are not quite friendly with any of listed subjects and find himself equally weak in all. In such case aspirants need to go through NCERT books before deciding any subject. Don’t judge your like or dislike unless you get a taste of dish. Unless you will read these books you can’t become sure about your inclination.

Previous UPSC IAS Exam Attempts before Becoming IAS Exam Topper

This was her Third attempt.
In her previous attempt she secured 305 rank and joined Indian Revenue Service (Income Tax) – IRS (IT) and was undergoing training in Nagpur while she got selected as IAS Topper in the IAS exam of 2011-12.
Mains Exam Marks
Total MarksMarks Obtained
General Studies600282
Medical Science600417
Total (Written)20001128
Total23001338 (58.17%)

Academic and Educational Background of IAS Topper

10th: Sant Nischal Singh Public School Yamuna Nagar
12th: Dayanand Public School Nabha
Training as an IRS at National Academy of Direct Taxes, Nagpur
Even after being having so many recognitions she was never a geek but took part in various sports and cultural events across her academic career from school to college and training institutes.


Her proud father Dr CK Aggarwal is a dentist in Yamunanagar; her mother Pinki Aggarwal is a housewife.

Mona Pruthi IAS Exam Topper 2005
IAS Exam Topper Mona Pruthi was a Delhi University student turned teacher turned IRS before joining as IAS. She topped the Civil Service Exam held in 2005-06 to join the most prestigious service in India. She is among very few girls to have this title of IAS Exam Topper.
Her father Late N. L. Pruthi was an Additional Session Judge and a great source of motivation and support for her who always encouraged her in the journey of excellence. But he was no more to she her success.

Number of Attempts

It was her Third Attempt which made her the IAS exam topper. But even before this success she was already in Indian Revenue Service working for Custom and Excise Department, Govt. of India.

Optional Subjects

In preliminary Test her optional subject was Sociology
In Mains Exam her optional subject was Sociology and English Literature.

Preparation strategy

For Preliminary: Wide and extensive study
For Mains: Selective and in-depth study
Selection of good books for IAS preparation is important, and newspapers. Among news papers she used to read The Hindu and the Economic Times.

What helped her in success?

  • Good Writing Skill
  • Balanced Thinking
  • Analytical Approach
  • Good Academic Records
  • Excellent Grasping Power
She says that to read, to think, to write and think again is the best procedure aspirants can follow.


School – Apeejay Public School, Faridabad, Haryana
B.A (Hon.) – She completed her graduation with English Hons. from Delhi University’s Lady Sriram College in which she proudly secured First Position.
M. Phil. – She has also done M.Phil. in English Literature from Delhi University.

What was she doing before becoming IAS Exam Topper?

In her second attempt (2004-05) she qualified for IRS in civil services exam. She was working at Custom and Excise Department.
Prior to this she has been teaching English at Maharaja Agrasen College in New Delhi for Three Years.

Articles 315 to 323 of the constitution of India of its part 14 deal elaborately with the provisions about the composition, appointment and removal of member along with the functions, powers and independence of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). It Functions as the central recruiting agency in India. As it has been created directly by the constitution itself, it is considered as an independent constitutional body.

Structure of UPSC – Union Public Service Commission

Appointment and Removal

The Union Public Service Commission consists of a chairman and other members who are appointed by the President of India. The Constitution has not specified the strength of the commission. Its composition has been left to the discretion of the President to determine.
The UPSC usually consists of 9 to 11 members including its chairman. It has been provided in the constitution that ‘one- half of the members of the commission should be such parsons who have held office for at least ten years under either the Government of India or under the Government of the state’ (Clause one Article 316). It is up to the president to determined the conditions of service of the members of the commission.
According to Clause 1A of Article 316 of the constitution, ‘if the office of the chairman of the commission becomes vacant or if any such chairman is by reasons of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office,…. those duties shall be performed by such one of the other members of the commission as the President may appoint for the purpose.’
According to clause 2 or the article 316, the Chairman and members can hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 65 tears, whichever is earlier. However, the Chairman and the members can quit their offices at any time by addressing their resignation to the President.
According to clause 1 of Article 317, the Chairman and any other member of the commission can be removed from his office by the order of the President on the ground of misbehaviour. But the President, in this case, at first has to refer the matter to the Supreme Court.
If the Supreme Court, after conducting the inquiry with the procedure prescribed under Article 145, upholds the cause the removal and advice so, then the President can order the removal of the Chairman and any other member of the commission. The constitution has clearly established that the advice of the Supreme Court is binding on the President. However, the President can suspend the Chairman or any other members of the commission even during the course of enquiry by the Supreme Court.
According to clause 3 Article 317, the president can also order the removal of the Chairman or any other member of the commission from his office under the following conditions:
(a) If he is adjudged an insolvent (that is, ‘has become bankrupt’)
(b) If he engages, during his term of office, in any paid employment outside the duties of his office, or
(c) If he ‘is, in the opinion of the president, unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body.’
Defining the term ‘misbehaviour’ the constitution states that is slapped on the face by another, it is a case of misbehaviour under Article 317 (1) and renders the latter member liable to be removal.
To safeguard and ensure the independent and impartial functioning of the commission, the constitution has made following provisions:
(a) The Chairman or any other members of the commission can be removed by the President only in the manner Prescribed in the constitution. Therefore, it can be said that they enjoy security of tenure.
(b) Although the President determines the conditions of service of the Chairman or a member, these conditions cannot be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment (Article 318).
(c) The entire expenses including allowance, salaries and pensions of the Chairman and members of the commission are not subject to vote of Parliament. They are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.
(d) The Chairman of the Commission (on ceasing to hold office), according to Article 319, shall be ineligible for further employment either under the Government of India or under the Government of a state.
(e) A member (on ceasing to hold office) except the Chairman of the commission is eligible for  appointment as the chairman of the commission or a State Public Service Commission (SPSC), but not for any other employment either in the Government of India Or in the Government of a state (Article 319).
(f) The Chairman or a member of the commission, after completing his first term, becomes ineligible for reappointment to that office.

Functions of UPSC

According to the Article 320 of the constitution the commission performs the following functions:
(a) It is the duty of the UPSC to conduct examination for appointments to the services of the Union and the services of the State respectively.
(b) It is also the duty of the commission (If requested by two or more states to do so) to help state in framing  and operating schemes of joint recruitment for any service for which candidates possessing special qualifications are required.
(c) The commission is consulted on the following matters:
(1) All matters relating to methods of recruitment of civil services and for civil posts.
(2) The principles to be followed in making appointments to civil services and posts and in making promotions and transfers from one service to another and on the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions or transfers.
(3) All disciplinary matters affecting a person serving under the government of India in a civil capacity including memorials or positions relating to such matter. These consist of:
– Compulsory retirement
– Withholding of increments
-Dismissal from service
– Reduction to lower service or rank (Demotion)
-Censure (severe disapproval)
-Removal from service
– Withholding of promotions
-Dismissal from service
– Recovery of pecuniary loss.
(The distinction between ‘Removal’ and ‘Dismissal’ is that a dismissed candidate disqualifies for the future employment under the Government whereas the removed candidate does not disqualify for the same.)
(4) Any claim for compensation of legal expenses incurred by a civil servant in defending legal proceedings instituted against him in respect of act done in the execution of his official duties.
(5) Any claim for the award of a pension in respect of injuries sustained by a person while serving under the Government of India and question as to the amount of any such award.
It is the duty of the Union Public service Commission to advise on any matter referred to them by the President. All regulations made, and is to be subjected to such modifications whether by way of repeal or amendment as both Houses of Parliament may make during the session in which they are so laid.
In one of its important decision the Supreme Court in 1992, has held ‘If before the selection is held, the Government withdraws its requisition from the Public Service Commission, neither the candidate nor the UPSC itself can insist on continuing the process of selection.
The constitution describes that the President, in respect to the All-India Services and Central Services and posts may make regulations specifying the matters, in which it shall not be necessary for the UPSC to be consulted.
The matters on which the Commission (UPSC) is not consulted are:
(a) Reservations of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class
(b) Considering the claims of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in making appointments to services and posts.
(c) On the selection for Chairmanship or membership of commissions or tribunals, posts of the highest diplomatic nature and a bulk of group C and group d services.
(d) On the selection for temporary or officiating appointment to a post if the appointed person is not likely to held the post for more than a year.
Article 322 of the constitution states that the Parliament can make an Act relating to the services of the union and also relating to the services of any local authority or other body corporate constituted by law or of any public institutions.
Article 323 of the Constitution, that deals with the expenses of the Commission, states that ‘The expenses of the Union Public Service Commission shall be charged on the consolidated Fund of India.’
Article 323 or the Constitution, that deals with reports of the Commission states that ‘It shall be the duty of the Union Commission to present annually to the President a report.’ Then it is the duty of the President to place the report before both the Houses of Parliament, along with a memorandum ‘explaining the cases where the advice of the Commission was not accepted and reasons for such non-acceptance. It can be ascertained lastly that the role of the Commission is not only limited, but also recommendations made by it are not mandatory but are only of advisory nature, and, therefore, not binding on the Government. The Government has final authority to accept or reject that advice. The Government can also make rules which regulate the scope of the advisory functions of the Commission. Such rules are named as the UPSC (Exemption from consultation) Regulation.
The emanation of Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) in 1964 influenced the role of the Commission in disciplinary matters. Because the Government consults both agencies while taking disciplinary action against a civil servant. However, the Commission, as an independent constitutional body, has an edge over the CVC. CVC was created by an executive resolution of the Government and conferred a statutory status in October 2003.

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